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Transformation of Milkman in Toni Morrison's Song of Solomon In Toni Morrison's Song of Solomon, the character of Milkman gradually learns to respect and to listen to women. This essay will examine Milkman's transformation from boy to man. In the first part of the novel, he emulates his father, by being deaf to women's wisdom and women's needs, and casually disrespecting the women he should most respect. He chooses to stray from his father's example and leaves town to obtain his inheritance and to become a self-defined man. From Circe, a witch figure, he is inspired to be reciprocal, and through his struggle for equality with men and then with women, he begins to find his inheritance, which is knowing what it is to fly, not gold. At the end, he acts with kindness and reciprocity with Pilate, learning from her wisdom and accepting his responsibilities to women at last. By accepting his true inheritance from women, he becomes a man, who loves and respects women, who knows he can fly but also knows his responsibilities. In the first part of the novel, Milkman is his father's son, a child taught to ignore the wisdom of women. Even when he is 31, he still needs "both his father and his aunt to get him off" the scrapes he gets into. Milkman considers himself Macon, Jr., calling himself by that name, and believing that he cannot act independently (120). The first lesson his father teaches him is that ownership is everything, and that women's knowledge (specifically, Pilate's knowledge) is not useful "in this world" (55). He is blind to the Pilate's wisdom. When Pilate tell Reba's lover that women's love is to be respected, he learns nothing (94). In the same episode, he begins his incestuous affair with Hagar, leaving her 14 years later when his desire for her wanes. Milkman's experience with Hagar is analogous to his experience with his mother, and serves to "[stretch] his carefree boyhood out for thrifty-one years" (98). Hagar calls him into a room, unbuttons her blouse and smiles (92), just as his mother did (13). Milkman's desire for his mother's milk disappears before she stops milking him, and when Freddie discovers the situation and notes the inappropriateness, she is left without this comfort. Similarly, Milkman ends the affair with Hagar when he loses the desire for her and recognizes that this affair with his cousin is not socially approved, leaving Hagar coldly and consciously, with money and a letter of gratitude.
Gray-Hat Hacking Overview Computer security is a growing concern with the onset of always-on connections in the home and the emerging global network. More and more people become connected everyday. The reliance on computers in our daily lives has increased the need for security and has shifted the ethical line for hackers and hacking. â€œA hacker is someone with deep knowledge of and great interest in a system. A hacker is someone who likes to delve into the inner workings of a system to find out how it works.â€2 The definition of a hacker has been skewed in recent years by the press to connotate people who break into computer systems. The term has also evolved to represent people who protect computer systems and those that break into them. These newly termed hackers can be classified into three categories white-hat, black-hat, and gray-hat hackers. White-hat hackers are employed by corporations and work on the good side to secure computer systems without breaking into them. Black-hat hackers work on the bad side and attempt to compromise systems in illegal ways. Gray-hat hackers occupy the gray space of hacking and break into systems to learn and expose flaws, often as a service to the computer community. The ethical line dividing white-hat hackers and black-hat hackers is clear. However, the line that separates gray-hat hackers from black-hat hackers is constantly shifting in the new global network. Hacking that may have been considered ethical yesterday may not be true today due to the impact on global systems in the form of dollars loss and downtime. Hacking has evolved from simply having knowledge of systems by harmlessly breaking into them to an issue of security and computer crimes (cybercrimes). Hacking attac... ...um Copyright Act, 1998, http://www.copyright.gov/legislation/dmca.pdf 5 Deborah Radcliff, Playing by Europeâ€™s rule, 2001, http://www.computerworld.com/securitytopics/security/story/0,10801,62057,00.html 6 US Department of Justice, Federal Computer Intrusion Laws, http://www.usdoj.gov/criminal/cybercrime/cclaws.html 7 Council of Europe, Convention on Cybercrime CETS No.:185, 2001, http://conventions.coe.int/Treaty/EN/cadreprincipal.htm 8 CSI / FBI, Computer Crime and Security Survey, 2003, http://i.cmpnet.com/gocsi/db_area/pdfs/fbi/FBI2003.pdf 9 George W. Bush, Presidentâ€™s Message to the Senate on the Council of Europe Convention on Cybercrime, 2003, http://www.usdoj.gov/criminal/cybercrime/senateCoe.pdf 10 US Department of Justice, FAQ on Council of Europe Convention on Cybercrime, 2003, http://www.usdoj.gov/criminal/cybercrime/COEFAQs.htm